Art and Fundamentals:
Theory and Practice
Form and Visual Ordering
Three essential components subject, form, and content
Form- total arrangement of the composition and to the very act of organizing and composing
The development of Form involves media and techniques and uses the elements of art.
The Principles of Organization
Pleasing relationship between different sections of a composition. Occurs when elements or independent parts have characteristics in common, such as repeated colors, similar textures, shared edges and so forth. Known as the factor of cohesion that relates certain parts to another in a piece of work.
Repetition - Primary way of creating harmonious relationships in a composition, does not require exact duplication. Just similarity. Relationships created by such resemblances give a work a degree of harmony.
Rhythm - continuance, a flow, or a sense of movement that results from the repeated beats. Relies on the repetition of pauses between repeating units. Variation in the negative spaces or intervals of silence between beats, helps create the rhythmic pattern. Space visual silence.
Pattern - involves harmony as established through repetition. If the basic pattern is repeated numerous times, then that basic pattern can be referred to as a motif. Repetition of a motif then creates a new design, called an allover pattern, which is only seen when the entire whole can be seen.
Closure (visual grouping) - arrangement of visual units suggests that they are part of a larger pattern or shape, people mentally “fill in” missing gaps. Artist provides a minimum of information or visual clues and the observer provides the rest.\
Visual Linking - closure unifies shapes that share an implied group relationship. Shared space itself becomes the cohesive factor.
Linking through Extensions (Implied and Subjective Edges/Lines/Shapes) - A wide variety of dissimilar images and shapes can be made to relate by being visually liked though the use of extensions. The extensions in a composition help the artist organize and bring all parts of that structure into a harmonious relationship. Extensions reveal “hidden” relationships.
Excessive use of Harmony - feeling monotonous about a piece of work could mean that you use too much harmony, reduce similarity or harmonize a different way.
Variety - If an artist achieves complete equality of visual forces, the work may feel static, lifeless, and unemotional. Visual boredom is a sign of an overly harmonious composition, by adding variation, they can then introduce essential ingredients for sustaining attention.
Contrast - opposition or dissimilarity, and it occurs wherever elements with opposing characteristics are places in the same area. When artists repeat elements in a way that makes them appear unrelated such as a few wide lines in a group of narrow ones, the differences or contrasts, stand out. Area, image, or shape are emphasized through the introduction of contrast.
Elaboration - Make up stuff to make dull spots have more energy, counterbalance your work. Altar the looks to make them a bit more out there.
Balance - important to unity that it is impossible to consider the principals of organization without it. Gravitational equilibrium of pairs or groups of units that are arranged on either side of a central axis. Implies the gravitational equilibrium of a single mark on a picture plane.
Radial Balance - can create both true and approximate symmetry. Visual forces are distributed around a central point and often radiate from it. Widely used in applied arts. Think of jewelers with radial stone patterns on necklaces.
Proportion - ratio of individual parts to one another or to the whole. When related to size and refers to a standard gauge or “norm” in order to judge the relationship between objects the term scale is used. Golden Mean or Golden Section represents the ideal standard for proportion and balance in life and art.
Dominance - creating differences through contrast that call attention to significant parts can make them more dominant.
Movement - two kinds of movement, implied and illusionary. Kinetic sculpture involves the physical movement of the work itself. Actual movement found in kinetic art are set into motion by air, water, mechanical devices, or interactive computer-activated programs.
Spring 2011 WASHers
6 years ago